Are the any existing or other supported languages other than python that can be used to create applications on Algorand? (i.e: GoLang, Ruby, JS)
Algorand supports JavaScipt, Java, Go and Python SDKs. There are also many SDKs written by the community:
These are primarily used to integrate with Algorand. Smart contracts can be built with in Python(PyTeal), TEAL, or Reach (https://reach.sh/). Reach apps are written in a js like syntax and let you focus on business logic. The Reach framework then generates mathematically verified contracts for you.