Extract Info from TX_ID within the Smart Contract

Hello. Is it possible through App Call to pass two arguments, which are the tx_id of a transaction and a string in order to then extract the note field via tx_id and compare it with the passed string?
By doing everything within the Smart Contract.

Short answer: No.
Long answer: The note field can be recovered using an “Indexer”, i.e. a separate DB. So if you extend the meaning of a “smart contract”, then the answer may be a cautious yes.